All optical disc pressing plants

The following list identifies optical disc pressing plants by their mould IFPI codes. The list expands beyond which plants pressed Nirvana releases, but is far from complete. Keep in mind that the information is compiled with the 1990's in mind. Many of these plants no longer exist, or have been taken over by another company which may not be documented here yet. Some company names may also be old names which have been changed, even though they are still the same company.

Nearly all the information is accurate, with exceptions of plants or locations with a question mark. The source of each entry is not referenced, but a very large number of these have been sourced from or verified to my own music and videogame collection, and also the collections of other collectors, particularly the Nirvana discography site If you have any questions regarding any of these entries, feel free to contact me.

For a list which also includes LBR IFPI codes, please see the list on (Please keep in mind that the list contains some errors.)

Table 1. The first coloumn lists the two or three first digits in the mould codes. They are sorted after how they were assigned, which does not make perfect sense alphanumerically. For example, 1A follows after 99, not after 19. However, AA follows after A9.
IFPI Pressing plants Location
01 PDO > Universal M&L > PMDC > EDC Hannover, Germany
02 PDO > Universal M&L > PMDC > Cinram Louviers, France
03 PDO > Universal M&L > PMDC > EDC King Mountain, USA
04 PDO > Universal M&L > PMDC > EDC Blackburn, UK
05 Warner Music Manufacturing Europe GmbH (WME) Germany
07 Sonopress Bertelsmann Productions Gesellschaft/ Arvato Gütersloh, Germany
08 Sonopress Arvato de México, S.A. de C.V. Mexico City, Mexico
09 Sonopress Pan Asia Compact Disc International Ltd Hong Kong
10 Sonopress LLC (two facilities) USA
11 Sonopress Rimo Ind E Comersie Fonografica Ltda Brazil
12 MPO (Moulages et Plastiques de l'Ouest) Averton, France
13 MPO Ibérica Madrid, Spain
14 EMI CD Swindon, UK
15 EMI CD Uden, Holland
16 EMI Manufacturing USA
17 DCM Sweden AB Kista, Sweden
19 ? France
20 Cinram Mexico
23 Nimbus > Technicolor UK
24 Technicolor USA
25 EMI Operation SpA Italy
26 Summit Australia
28 Toshiba-EMI Ltd Japan
30 Koch Germany
31 Ibermemory > Sonopress Ibermemory S.A. Madrid, Spain
32 GEMA O.D. S.A. Spain
33 Technodisco S.A. Spain
35 Servicios Ibericos Entertainment S.A. Spain
36 EMI Capitol USA
38 DOCdata France France
39 Columbia Music Denon Japan
40 JVC Rinkan Plant Japan
41 JVC Disc America Co. Tuscaloosa, AL, USA
44 Memory-Tech Corporation Japan
45 Sony Music Entertainment (Japan) Inc. (two facilities) Japan
46 Technicolor Australia
48 ? Japan
50 (Sony) DADC US Terre Haute, IN, USA
51 (Sony) DADC US Terre Haute, IN, USA
52 DOCdata Germany Germany
53 SungEum Ltd./ SKC South Korea
54 Microservice Brazil
60 Cinram Inc Canada
61 Cinram Inc Canada/ USA?
64 Sony DADC Mexico Mexico
65 SMEA (Sony Music Entertainment Australia)/ Sony DADC Huntington, Australia
66 Sony Music Mexico/ Sony Music Entertainment/ Sony DADC Brazil Manaus, Brazil
67 Sony DADC Canada Canada
68 CD Plant AB Sweden
70 Anvistar Co. Ltd Taiwan
72 (Sony) DADC US Pitman, NJ, USA
73 ? UK
77 ? USA
78 Sanyo Music Japan
79 ? USA/ Australia?
80 Cinram Canada
81 Disque Americ/ Disque Amerique/ Americ Disc Canada
83 Digitpress Sdn. Bhd. Malaysia
85 Woong Jin Coway Development Co. Ltd. (WJM) South Korea
86 EPSA Argentina
87 Disctronics UK > EDC (bought equipment and/ or plant) UK
88 ? South Korea
91 ? Taiwan
92 Sanyo-Verbatim CD Company > Optical Disc Solutions USA
94 Sony DADC Austria AG (two facilities) Anif and Thalgau, Austria
95 ? Hong Kong?
96 Videolar S.A. Brazil
97 Optimal Media Production GmbH/ Optimal Toutrager Productions GmbH Germany
98 ? South Korea?
1A SNA France
1E ? Japan
1F EMI Mfg Canada Canada
1G Compact Disc Albrechts (CDA) Germany?
1J ? Japan
1Q ? Argentina
1R L.D.A. Argentina
1U ABCD Music Ltd Israel
1W D. Tarra Indonesia
1Z DOCdata Boston, MA, USA
2A Matsushita Universal Media Services/ Universal USA
2D Disctronics USA USA
2F CMCA > Deluxe USA
2G Jackin Optical Technology Ltd Hong Kong
2I ? Taiwan
2N ? Taiwan
2T Technicolor USA
2U Specialty Records Corporation > WEA Mfg. > Cinram Manufacturing Olyphant, PA, USA
2W Sentinel B.V. Hilversum, Holland
3A Fuji Magnetics GmbH Germany
3B Zomax Optical Media Plymouth USA
3G Zomax Optical Media Inc Canada
3J ? Germany
3K Buhl Data Service GmbH Germany
3L IPC Communications USA
3P Zomax Optical Media Ireland
3R Maxell Corporation USA
3T ? EU
3V ? USA
3Y CD Systems Colombia
4B Mayking > DOCdata UK London, UK
4J Toppan Printing Company Japan
4K Datapulse Technology Limited Singapore
4M Technicolor USA
5D MPO Ireland Ltd Ireland
5G ? Monaco
5J GZ Digital Media a.s. Lodenice, Chech Republic
5M VTV Belgium
5Q Firefly Entertainment UK
6C Teltron Buenos Aires, Argentina
6D Intramedia Inc. Taiwan
6L Pacific Mirror Australia
6R DOCdata California USA
6Y Sonopress South Africa (Pty) Ltd Randburg, South Africa
7D Optimax Disc, Inc. USA
7K Delphi Technology Inc. Taiwan
7N ? Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
8D Modus Media International USA
8P Metatec International B.V. Holland
8Y ? UK
9B Metatec International USA
9F Crest National Optical Media USA
9K Saturn Fulfilment Services Ltd. Ireland
9R Takt Poland
9W ? Taiwan
A1 Fochan Fenglong Electronic China
A6 Rainbo Records Canoga Park, CA, USA
D6 EDD Germany
D9 ? South Korea
DK Trueway Corporation Ltd Hong Kong
E2 ? China
F9 L&M Optical Disc LLC USA
G3 C.D.T. South Africa
G7 Nordeste Digital Line SA Brazil
H6 ? Taiwan
HH ? Japan
HU Deluxe UK
IC U-TECH Media Corporation Taiwan
J5 ? Indonesia
J8 ? South Korea
JI Discmasters USA
JN ? Taiwan
JU ? Taiwan
JW DCM Öresund AB Öresund, Sweden
KA Lynic Group UK
KK ? Mexico
L8? Advanced Duplication Services USA
L9 ? Thailand
LA DOCdata? UK
LC ZAO ARK-System LLC Russia
LD Artech Video Records Italy
LU Sonopress Singapore (Pte) Ltd Singapore
N5 Disco-Press Belgium
P8 Stebbing New Zealand
QK ? Japan
QS ? Taiwan
RF Repli Master LLC Russia
RM Power Media International Co. Ltd Taiwan
RV Sonopress France SAS Forbach, France
RZ ? England
U8 Concord Disk Mfg. USA
UP DMD Thailand
UR Deluxe ?
V0 Zelenograd Music Technology Russia
V5 Duplium Corporation Canada
UG Technicolor ?
VL Media Evolved, LLC USA
Z8 IP Armita Belarus
ZN Music City Optical Media USA
AAH MediaMotion Manufacturing BV Holland
UAA ? Ukraine
? American Helix USA
? CDI Israel
? Disctronics Australia Australia
? DOCdata Benelux Holland
? Duplisoft Lisbon, Portugal
? Media Technology Australia
? Media Technology New Zealand
? MPO Asia Bangkok, Thailand
? MPO Portugal Lisbon, Portugal
? Novodisc O.D. Group Spain
? Sentinel N.V. Wellen, Belgium
? Sony DADC Hong Kong Ltd. Manufacturing Operations Hong Kong
? Sony DADC India Mumbai, India
? Sony DADC Shanghai/ Shanghai Epic Music Ent. Co. Ltd. Mfg Operations Shanghai, China
? Sony DADC UK Southwater, UK
? Ural Electronic Plant Russia